Maculopapular rash is a skin disorder in which the victim may either suffer from macules or may suffer from papules or even both. The term ‘maculopapular’ is derived as a fusion of Macules and Papules. Macules are often flat non-elevated region of epidermal skin layer which may also be discolored. On the other hand, papules are small protruded bumps appearing on the skin. It is also sometimes referred to as HIV rash. Maculopapular rashes are recorded in people of all age group. These rashes may occur at any region of body such as facial skin, torso and also extremities. In children with this disorder the rashes are prominent on palms as well as soles. Generally these rashes are often red in color but in advanced stage of Maculopapular rash the condition may become discolored.
There are various causes of maculopapular rashes; one of such factors may lead to the condition may include Epstein Barr virus. This virus is often associated with individuals affected with cancer in geographical regions such as Africa as well as China. This often originates through animal virus which may lead to fever along with painful blisters appearing on skin. Syphilis is another condition wherein Maculopapular rashes may be noticed. In this condition the rashes may also rupture and become ulcerative blisters. The condition can be highly painful but patients are usually treated with conventional penicillin.
These rashes are also recorded in case of scabies wherein these skin manifestations are often itchy, irritating and contagious. People affected with Rubella or German measles are also prone to such rashes. Since the condition is often of mild in nature it ebbs away in 3 to 4 days. Rashes can also be caused due to conditions such as Chikungunya wherein you may experience fever along with rashes. This condition is often resulted due to mosquito bite. Another condition that can occur due to mosquito bite is Dengue. In fact Dengue is believed to be one of the primary factors that cause Maculopapular rashes. Associated symptoms that a person may experience along with rashes include fever and pain in joints. The condition can also be fatal if the platelet level decreases significantly. This may cause excessive bleeding eventually leading to death.
The reason why Maculopapular rashes are also called HIV rash is because it is recorded in case of Type-1 HIV these rashes are extremely common. Nevertheless, even condition such as low cholesterol in the body may be lead to such skin anomalies. This may occur due to surplus use of Niacin and Vitamin B3. Sometimes certain medicines such as amoxicillin, Cefobid, Cefoperazone, Chemotherapeutic medicines and other antibiotics may cause rashes.
Diagnosing Maculopapular rashes
One of the highly adopted measures to determine prevalence of maculopapular rashes is through patient’s medical history and complete physical examination. Usually the doctor looks into the medical history and detects if any incidence of diseases have been experience by the patient. He may then closely asses the rashes to ensure that the rashes experienced are Maculopapular or some other kind of skin ailment. If the person is experiencing any additional symptoms then it should be informed to the doctor immediately.
There are also some laboratory tests that can help in determining the cause of the condition. One of the tests that may be helpful is blood test wherein blood is examined for any irregularities. There are other screenings such as syphilis test, cerebrospinal fluid examination, pustules culture test, etc. These tests are performed by experts and possible anomalies are highlighted. There are also some additional examinations such as ENT, lung test, genital assessment, joints as well as nerve tests which may be suggested by your doctor.
These rashes can also be classified through the symptoms experienced. For example, rashes appearing on facial skin can either indicate prevalence of measles or else viral infection of some other kind. If the patient is suffering from headache as well as confusion then the rashes may be a result of Gonococcemia. Meningococcemia may cause joint pain along with maculopapular rashes. In case of purulent uretheral drainage, there are other associated symptoms as well such as pharyngitis, anaphylaxis or breathing difficulties.
The treatment of the disorder is often depended on the symptoms experienced along with it. However, the treatment is often focused on the causing factor. If it is determined that Chikungunya is the causing factor of resulted rashes then chloroquine is suggested by the doctor which is the first possible treatment for chikungunya. Intravenous medicines and oral rehydration is suggested for people suffering with dengue, this may also help in alleviating experienced rashes. But in severe cases of dengue, people are suggested blood transfusion. If the rashes are due to EBV or Epstein Barr Virus then painkiller may help alleviating the symptoms. Since, the treatment would be according to the causing factor, a suitable and efficaciouss treatment for Maculopapular rashes can only be obtained by consulting a doctor.
Maculopapular rash pictures